Monday, March 9, 2009

Diabetes in Basic and complication Info

Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that is essential for the proper use of the energy contained in the food we eat. This results in a series of malfunctions, which include an excess of a type of sugar called glucose in tests on the blood and urine. Over time, diabetes can lead to life-threatening and debilitating complications. Currently, the growth of diabetes in Canada is at epidemic levels. Over 2 million Canadians have diabetes and one-third of them are undiagnosed. Among First Nations people, the prevalence of diabetes is three to five times the national average. Controlling diabetes There is, as yet, no cure for diabetes but the good news is the disease can be managed and, in the case of type 2 diabetes, preventable. About 90% of all diabetes cases are adult-onset type 2 diabetes, typically diagnosed about the age of 45 but early cases have also been reported. People of an advanced age or with a family history of diabetes have a higher risk of being diagnosed with type 2. But there are other risk factors - such as being excessively overweight, poor eating habits, and physical inactivity - that are preventable. Scientific studies have also shown that the adverse effects of diabetes can be prevented through good management of blood sugar levels. What causes complications from diabetes? High blood sugar causes changes in hormones and cells that can damage your blood vessels or nerves, or both. Damaged blood vessels are more likely to build up plaque, increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack, and stroke. Damage to smaller blood vessels can lead to loss of vision, kidney disease, and nerve problems. The complications from diabetes are:
  1. Heart or large blood vessel disease. These complications—sometimes referred to as macrovascular diseases—may cause peripheral arterial disease, stroke, or heart attack.
  2. Eye (diabetic retinopathy) and kidney (diabetic nephropathy) disease, which are sometimes referred to as microvascular diseases.
  3. Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy), which can affect your internal organs as well as your ability to feel sensations and pain.

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