Sunday, January 27, 2008

Type of Diabetes

More expert about Classification of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes Results from the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that "unlocks" the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter and fuel them. It is estimated that 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes Results from insulin resistance (a condition in which the body fails to properly use insulin), combined with relative insulin deficiency. Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes affects about 4% of all pregnant women - about 135,000 cases in the United States each year.

Pre-diabetes Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. There are 54 million Americans who have pre-diabetes, in addition to the 20.8 million with diabetes.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Metformin as firstline therapy for diabetes type 2

Trade Mark: Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM Metformin is an oral medication that lowers blood glucose (sugar) and is used for treating type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that controls glucose levels in blood by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by increasing the removal of glucose from the blood by muscle and fat tissues. As a result, blood glucose levels fall. Diabetes caused by a decrease in production of insulin that causes increased production of glucose by the liver, and reduced uptake (and effects) of insulin on fat and muscle tissues. Metformin acts by increasing the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the uptake and effects of insulin. These actions lower the level of sugar in the blood. Unlike glucose–lowering drugs of the sulfonylurea class, for example gliburid (Micronase; DiaBeta) or glipizid (Glucotrol), metformin does not increase the concentration of insulin in the blood and, therefore, does not cause excessively low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) when used alone. In scientific studies, metformin reduced the complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness and kidney disease. Metformin was approved by the FDA in December 1994

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

The symptoms of diabetes complication

Understanding the symptoms of diabetes complications Your symptoms will vary depending on the complication. Learn more detail:

1. Chest pain (also called angina) or shortness of breath when you exercise, if you have heart and large blood vessel disease. You may have other symptoms, such as dizziness or lightheadedness, shoulder or stomach pain, or a racing heartbeat. You also may have no symptoms until having a heart attack or stroke. If the large blood vessels in your legs are affected, you may have problems with blood circulation to your legs and feet, causing changes in the skin color, decreased sensation, and leg cramps during exercise (intermittent claudication) 2. Vision problems, vision loss, or pain in your eyes (rare), if you have diabetic retinopathy. 3. No symptoms, if you have early kidney disease. Symptoms of swelling (edema) in your feet and legs and later throughout your body and increasing blood pressure develop as the disease progresses. 4. Tingling, numbness, tightness, burning, or shooting or stabbing pain in the feet, hands, or other parts of your body, especially at night, if the nerves affecting sensation and touch are affected (peripheral diabetic neuropathy). If the nerves that control internal organs are damaged (autonomic neuropathy), you may have digestive problems ; profuse or reduced sweating; difficulty sensing when your bladder is full; sexual problems; dizziness, weakness, or fainting when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension); or difficulty knowing when your blood sugar is low (hypoglycemia unawareness).

Diabetes complication

More about diabetes complications
High blood sugar causes changes in hormones and cells that can damage your blood vessels or nerves, or both. Damaged blood vessels are more likely to build up plaque, increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack, and stroke. Damage to smaller blood vessels can lead to loss of vision, kidney disease, and nerve problems. The complications from diabetes are:
  1. Heart or large blood vessel disease. These complications—sometimes referred to as macrovascular diseases—may cause peripheral arterial disease, stroke, or heart attack.
  2. Eye (diabetic retinopathy) and kidney (diabetic nephropathy) disease, which are sometimes referred to as microvascular diseases.
  3. Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy), which can affect your internal organs as well as your ability to feel sensations and pain.

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